SINGAPORE - The Republic's vulnerability to increasing sea levels and the requirement for coastal defenses to buffer it against the effect of climate change have recently appeared on the national agenda. But in Parliament on Monday (Oct 7), Singapore's role in donating to planet-warming emissions was also emphasized. Singapore produced 52.5 million tonnes of greenhouse gases in 2017, stated Dr Koh Poh Koon, Senior Minister of State for Trade and Industry. This works out to about 0.11 per cent of world-wide emissions. Of this, industries subsidize about 60 per cent, Dr Koh stated in response to a question upraised by Nominated MP Anthea Ong. Ms Ong had required to know how much industries - in exact, the refinery and petrochemicals sector - were backing to climate change, and what the Government was doing to encourage industries to take accountability for their contributions to the climate disaster. The bulk of emissions from the industrial segment are from the combustion of fossil fuels by the refining and petrochemicals area, with the latter contributing about three-quarters of industries' emissions, stated Dr Koh. A distinct report that Singapore submitted in December last year to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change had distinguished that while Singapore does not generate any oil or gas, the Republic is a chief oil refining and petrochemical centre that serves the world-wide market. In Parliament on Monday, Dr Koh stated that in 2017, 190 Mtoe (millions tonnes of oil equivalent) of fossil fuels were brought into Singapore.